museum of daylight
art museum of Bregenz, peter zumthor
The facade consists of etched glass shingles with several functions: they lend the building’s main body lightness with their transparency, insulate against cold and heat and form an essential part of the lighting arrangement for the building. The incoming light is refracted for the first time on the facade before entering the interior.
The facade was designed as a self-supporting construction, completely independent from the actual building. Steel framework elements make up the construction which supports the glass shingles on the outside as well as the glasswork on the inside of the structure. In this way it covers the completely free-standing concrete building like a double casing. Between the outer and inner glasswork there is a 90-centimetre wide light pit that makes it possible to direct daylight to the first subterranean level. This gap is equipped with cleaning lifts used for the servicing and maintenance of the building. In addition, it accommodates the lighting installation which illuminates the Kunsthaus during the night. [ Kunsthaus Bregenz official website ]
The Kunsthaus Bregenz was conceived as a daylight museum. The facade made of glass shingles serves as a skin to diffuse daylight which first passes through rows of windows and then through the light ceilings in the halls.
Although the light has been refracted three times (glass facade, insulating glasswork, illuminated ceilings), it illuminates the halls differently depending on the time of day or year. In this way, a natural lighting atmosphere is created although the building has no visible windows. Over the hanging light ceiling, specially developed pendulum lamps, controlled by an exterior light sensor on the Kunsthaus roof, have been installed that complement the daylight. Every lamp can be controlled separately or as a group and can be infinitely dimmed (light management system Luxmate professional).
The pendulum lamps hang in pairs at a 90° angle to one another and are equipped with 58 Watt fluorescent lamps and diffusion attachments. [ Kunsthaus Bregenz official website ]
Kapilux is an insulating glass with an integrated capillary slab consisting of a large number of honeycomb-structured thin-walled transparent or white capillaries. This capillary slab can be integrated into different kinds of insulating glass, and it diffuses light effectively.
Energy transmission, light transmission, and light diffusion can be adapted to the facade orientation and the room behind the facade.
New York based firm, Peter Marino had designed Chanel Flagship store in Tokyo using this Kapilux product with 700,000 embedded LEDs for the facade system.
The massive display can project footage of fashion show runway scenes or an electronic version of Chanel’s iconic black-and-white tweeds on a larger-than-life scale. In transparent mode, the structure offers clear views inside or outside. The electronic mille-feuille can also transform from see-through to opaque, thanks to a combination of 3,675 square feet of canvas scrim and electronically controlled privacy glass.
Xicui Entertainment Complex, Beijing China
Sustainable media wall : GreenPix
GreenPix is a solar power-harnessing, light-emitting facade system designed by Simone Giostra Architects, a collaboration with Arup. Integrated with the curtain wall of the Xicui entertainment complex in Beijing near the site of the 2008 Olympics.
Greenpix features the largest color LED display on earth. GreenPix behaves like an organic system, absorbing solar energy during the day and generating light from the same power that evening. Polycrystalline photovoltaic cells are laminated within the glass of the curtain wall and placed with changing density on the entire building’s skin. The density pattern increases the building’s performance, allowing natural light when required by interior program, while reducing heat gain and transforming excessive solar radiation into energy for the media wall.
When glass applied to the building exterior, the most common applications were curtain wall. However, glass is seen less simply thesedays. One aspect of this is the transformation of curtain walls from two-dimensional surfaces to three-dimensional.
folding glass facade
One example are folded glass facades, which take once-modular components of glass and steel and make them appear more malleable. Barkow Leibinger Architects‘ Trutec Building in Seoul, Korea synthesizes the modular and the folded by taking a regular rectangular grid and infilling the cells with a prismatic pattern of triangular and trapezoidal glass panes. It creates an irregular but relatively consistent pattern across the main facade.
The pattern of the dynamic glazing refracts light and image, which abstracts both the building’s surface and the views out of the building.
lighting dichroic discs
UN Studio designed colored bubbled wrap like shell for the trendy department store in Seoul Korea. The exterior skin is actually formed of 4,330 overlapping glass discs, 33 inches in diameter and a half-inch thick, withe LED lights behind it. The LED lights can change the color of each of the discs and create vivid play of colors and graphics to be displayed. The color of the facade changes from green to amber, depending on the position of the sun and the viewing position. At night the discs are individually backlit and controlled by a computer program to create color schemes so that the building makes a complete transformation during the day and evening.
“The subtle daytime looks of the building during day, changes to something completely expressive and outgoing during the night”, says lighting designer Rogier Van der Heide.
Eckelt Glas gmbh
The architectural challenge of spherically curved, frameless glazing has previously been unachievable worldwide. Following pre-qualification negotiations by the owner and architects with ECKELT GLAS, the glass units were modeled using computer software and a number of specially constructed prototypes, providing verification of the complex geometrical forms. Architect Herzog de Meuron and ECKELT GLAS eventually arrived at a successful modification of the VARIO system, which incorporates aesthetic as well as technical requirements such as earthquake safety, fire-protection etc. There were a total of 224 “bubbles” specially finished for PRADA store in Tokyo, Japan.